Delaying Gratificaion Inventory (DGI) - Hoerger et al. (2011). Psychological Assessment.
The scale measures individual differences in gratification delay, and can be administered as a long form (DGI-35) or short form (DGI-10). The measure's theoretical factor structure was derived from six decades of prior literature and covers delay behavior across five domains: food, physical pleasures, social interactions, money, and achievement.

Administration and Scoring
  • Instructions, items, and scoring (no frills) |DOC|
  • Handout for paper-and-pencil administration and scoring, with norms table |DOC|
  • SPSS Syntax |SPS|
  • Primary article with items and scoring on p. 4 |PDF|
  • Note that the original publication included a typo. Item 13 should NOT be reverse coded. This has been corrected in all versions and syntax posted on this website.
Evidence of Reliability and Validity
  • Hoerger et al. (2011): Primary article demonstrating internal consistency reliability, test-retest relaibility, factor structure, construct validity, and criterion validity in explaining outcomes related to health and well-being in a large worldwide sample (n = 10,741) of adults ages 18-90. |PDF|
  • Baker & Hoerger (2012): Developmental underpinnings of delay of gratification |PDF|
  • Gerhart et al. (2013): Delay of gratification associated with lower depression symptom severity, anger, and experiential avoidance |PDF|
  • Giovanelli et al. (2013): Delay of gratification associated with lower depression and hypomania symptom severity
  • Groppe & Elsner (2014): Parent reports of children's delay of gratification for food are associated with better performance on executive functioning tasks and lower parental reports of emotional eating
  • Fernandes et al. (2014): Delay of gratification is associated with better financial literac
  • Milfont & Schwarzenthal (2014): Delay of gratification is associated with a preferences for early wake/sleep schedules
Forthcoming Research
  • The DGI has been used in many ongoing and recently completed studies, including observational and intervention research, with student samples, community samples, older adults, patients with cancer, and patients with mental health diagnoses
  • The DGI has been translated to simple Chinese, Spanish, Icelandic, and Turkish by independent labs, which will be posted here eventually

Verbal-Mathematical-Logical (VML) Test of Cognitive Ability - Hoerger et al. (2012). Emotion.
This is a brief measure of general mental ability, with questions similar to the ACT or SAT.
  • Measure with scoring syntax for SPSS |DOC|
  • Article reporting reliability and concurrent validity with other cognitive and emotional intelligence measures, GPA, and ACT; see Table 1 |PDF|